Detection, Identification, and Direction of Arrival Estimation of Drone FHSS Signals With Uniform Linear Antenna Array is a work by Batuhan Kaplan, Ibrahim Kahraman, Ali Riza Ekti, Serhan Yarkan, and Ali Görçın.

Safety, security, and privacy are three critical concerns about using drones daily. Given their ever-decreasing sizes and increasing capabilities, being aware of drone activities in the vicinity becomes essential to surveillance. Thus, monitoring drones and, preferably, their controllers should be integrated into existing security measures.

In this study, the authors propose a frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) drone controller signal detection and emitter direction-finding framework to achieve these goals. Since drone communication signals often coexist with other FHSS signals in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band, the authors first introduce a method based on cyclostationarity analysis to distinguish drone radio controller signals from other signals using the 2.4 GHz ISM band.

Next, a variant of the short-term Fourier transform is applied to extract the parameters of detected drone remote controller signals. The correct hopping signals are then aggregated based on the clustered parameters to obtain their combined baseband equivalent signal. Additionally, a resampling process is implemented to reduce unrelated samples in the spectrum and represent it with the reconstructed signal, which has a much lower bandwidth than the spread bandwidth.

Finally, two different multiple signal classification algorithms are employed to estimate the direction of the drone controller relative to the receiving system. To validate the overall performance of the proposed method, the framework is implemented on hardware platforms and tested under real-world conditions. A uniform linear antenna array captures over-the-air signals in hilly terrain suburban environments, considering both line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight scenarios. Direction estimation performance is presented comparatively, with relevant discussions provided.

Publication Date– November 2021

Detection, Identification, and Direction of Arrival Estimation of Drone FHSS Signals With Uniform Linear Antenna Array contains the following major sections:

  • Introduction
  • Signal Model
  • Mathematical Preliminaries
  • Proposed Method
  • Measurement Setup
  • Measurement Results
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. (No changes were made)

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