AJAX progress indicator
  • a

  • An accelerometer is used to determine the position and orientation of a drone during flight. The accelerometer is used to provide the acceleration force the drone is subjected to in all three axes, X, Y, and Z. It also determines the tilt angle of the drone in a stationary position. The accelerometer also gives linear acceleration in the horizontal and vertical directions. This data can be used to calculate the velocity, movement, and even rate of change of altitude of the drone. Reference- Sensors Used in Drones
  • Acoustic counter-UAS sensors are passive and use high-sensitivity microphone arrays coupled with audio analysis applications to detect, track and identify sounds produced by UAV motors and propellers. The spinning of different types of UAV propellers produce unique acoustic patterns, which makes it possible to create a library of these acoustic signatures to identify different types of UAV and determine the general direction of the sound source. The approximate location of a UAV can be determined using triangulation methods with multiple spatially separated microphone stations. By analyzing the Doppler-induced frequency shift of the source signal over a period of time, some C-UAS may be able to report the approximate speed and direction of the sound source. High levels of sound pollution, like those in urban environments, can degrade the performance of C-UAS that rely on acoustic sensors. Acoustic sensors are ideally employed to “quiet” remote locations such as rural prisons or for border protection applications. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Acro-Mode is an "acrobatic" flight control mode for experienced drone pilots who want full control over the drone, also known as manual mode. Acro-Mode disables self-leveling controls, allowing for advanced aerial maneuvers such as flips and rolls. Reference- Drone Tech Aerospace
  • Air Defense includes defensive measures designed to destroy attacking aircraft and aerodynamic missiles or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such attack. It includes the use of aircraft, SAMs, antiaircraft artillery, electromagnetic warfare (EW) (including directed energy), multiple sensors, and other available weapons or capabilities. Reference- Counterair Operations
  • Air Defense includes defensive measures designed to destroy attacking aircraft and aerodynamic missiles or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such attack. It includes the use of aircraft, SAMs, antiaircraft artillery, electromagnetic warfare (EW) (including directed energy), multiple sensors, and other available weapons or capabilities. Reference- Counterair Operations
  • Active defense measures are a multi-step sequence that an organization or individual can do to detect, identify, decide, and potentially engage an unknown UAS. The quicker these steps can be applied, the more effective the response against the threat of UAS. Reference- Counter-Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ATP 3-01.81)
  • An aerodrome is a defined area, on land or on water, on a fixed, fixed offshore, or floating structure, including any buildings, installations, and equipment thereon, intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure, and surface movement of aircraft. Reference- Drone Incident Management at Aerodromes on C-UAS Hub or EASA
  • Above Ground Level, or AGL, describes the literal height above the ground over which you are flying. Reference- Drone Pilot Ground School
  • Above Ground Level, or AGL, describes the literal height above the ground over which you are flying. Reference- Drone Pilot Ground School
  • Air and Missile Defense (AMD) are direct (active and passive) defensive actions taken to destroy, nullify, or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air and ballistic missile threats against friendly forces and assets. Reference- U.S. Army Air and Missile Defense Operations  
  • Air and Missile Defense (AMD) are direct (active and passive) defensive actions taken to destroy, nullify, or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air and ballistic missile threats against friendly forces and assets. Reference- U.S. Army Air and Missile Defense Operations  
  • Air Defense Artillery (ADA) are weapons and equipment for actively combating air targets from the ground. Reference- U.S. Army Air and Missile Defense Operations
  • Air Defense Artillery (ADA) are weapons and equipment for actively combating air targets from the ground. Reference- U.S. Army Air and Missile Defense Operations
  • Air interdiction is defined as air operations to perform interdiction conducted at such distances from friendly forces that detailed integration of each air mission with the fire and movement of friendly forces is not required. Reference- ATP 3-01.81 Counter-Unmanned Aircraft Systems
  • An air navigation service provider is any public or private entity providing air navigation services for general air traffic. Reference- Drone Incident Management at Aerodromes on C-UAS Hub or EASA
  • An air navigation service provider is any public or private entity providing air navigation services for general air traffic. Reference- Drone Incident Management at Aerodromes on C-UAS Hub or EASA
  • Air traffic control is a service provided for a) preventing collisions between aircraft and in the maneuvering area between aircraft and obstructions and b) expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic. Reference- Drone Incident Management at Aerodromes on C-UAS Hub or EASA
  • Air traffic control is a service provided for a) preventing collisions between aircraft and in the maneuvering area between aircraft and obstructions and b) expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic. Reference- Drone Incident Management at Aerodromes on C-UAS Hub or EASA
  • An airport is any land area specifically adapted for the landing, taking-off and maneuvering of aircraft, including the ancillary installations which these operations may involve for the requirements of aircraft traffic and services, including the installations needed to assist commercial air services. Reference- Drone Incident Management at Aerodromes on C-UAS Hub or EASA
  • The airport environment are the conditions in which the airport activities operate. The airport environment refers to the areas inside the airport perimeter. Reference- Drone Incident Management at Aerodromes on C-UAS Hub or EASA  
  • An airprox is a situation in which, in the opinion of a pilot or air traffic services personnel, the distance between aircraft and their relative positions and speeds has been such that the safety of the aircraft involved may have been compromised. Reference- Drone Incident Management at Aerodromes on C-UAS Hub or EASA
  • Airspace Control Authority is the commander or leader designated to assume overall responsibility for the operation of the airspace control system in the airspace control area. (JP 3-52) Reference- Airspace Control
  • The airspace control plan is a military term for the document approved by the joint force commander that provides specific planning guidance and procedures for the airspace control system for the joint operational area. Reference- U.S. Army Air and Missile Defense Operations
  • Assess in the context of the air and missile defense engagement sequence is the analysis of the effectiveness of the engagement and of the potential for reengagements. Reference- U.S. Army Air and Missile Defense Operations
  • Atti-Mode (attitude-mode) is a DJI flight control mode that allows the drone pilot to control the drone's pitch and roll while the drone flight controller maintains its altitude and heading. This mode is often used for aerial photography and cinematography. Reference- Drone Tech Aerospace
  • Autonomous flight is a navigation method in which the UAV is self-controlled by an internal navigation system using the built-in GPS, radar, or machine vision for obstacle avoidance, machine vision, and inertial navigation. Reference- Drone Tech Aerospace
  • Aviation security is the combination of measures and human and material resources intended to safeguard civil aviation against acts of unlawful interference that jeopardize its security. Reference- Drone Incident Management at Aerodromes on C-UAS Hub or EASA
  • b

  • A ballistic missile is any missile that does not rely upon aerodynamic surfaces to produce lift and consequently follows a ballistic trajectory when thrust is terminated. Reference- U.S. Army Air and Missile Defense Operations
  • A barometer is a sensor that measures air pressure. Drones use the air pressure data to calculate their altitude. Reference- Sensors Used in Drones
  • The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) defines beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) as a broad spread of existing and potential uncrewed aircraft system (UAS) operations whose only common factor is the uncrewed aircraft (UA) being out of the direct visual line of sight of the remote pilot. Reference- SKYbrary
  • The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) defines beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) as a broad spread of existing and potential uncrewed aircraft system (UAS) operations whose only common factor is the uncrewed aircraft (UA) being out of the direct visual line of sight of the remote pilot. Reference- SKYbrary
  • The objective of the Blue Team or a Blue Team Operation is to defend the asset of interest or location from Red Team attacks using all available technology, processes, and systems as stated within the Rules of Engagement (RoE), Security Operations (SecOps), Concept of Operations (CONOPS), and Standard Operating Procedures (SOP). Reference- Stadia Protection and Mitigation from Drone Incursion and Threats
  • c

  • The C-UAS Protection Cycle are the basic concepts that support organizations in developing the minimum viable security needs which will give their asset or location an adequate level of protection. All four phases of the C-UAS Protection Cycle contribute to the overall C-UAS Strategy that will govern an asset or location protection. C-UAS Protection cycle & strategy (Image Credit: Project Stadia)   Protection Phase 1: focuses on developing the processes that will be used to manage and respond to UAS threats. Protection Phase 2: examines the various C-UAS technologies that are available to mitigate these risks. Protection Phase 3: tests the operational procedures and deployed C-UAS technologies through Red Teaming adversarial testing to ensure all operational procedures (phase 1) and implemented C-UAS technology (phase 2) are effective as an overall defense of an asset or location. Protection Phase 4: highlights tactical responses and processes training needs identified (from Phases 1-3), ensuring that those responsible for security are fully equipped and confident to handle any UAS threat. Reference- Stadia Protection and Mitigation from Drone Incursion and Threats
  • A C-UAS Technology Assessment is the process of identifying counter-UAS requirements and equipment based on the organization's threat assessment, operating procedures, and response plans. Reference- Stadia Protection and Mitigation from Drone Incursion and Threats
  • C-UAS Technology Operators use the counter-UAS technology deployed over the asset to defend against UAS or drone threats. These operators follow organizational policies, procedures, and training to use the designated equipment and its capabilities. Reference- Stadia Protection and Mitigation from Drone Incursion and Threats
  • A Careful UAS Operator is someone that is aware of and adheres to, regulations, drone control measures, and safe drone operations. Reference- Protection against Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Handbook on UAS protection of Critical Infrastructure and Public Space: A five Phase approach for C-UAS stakeholders
  • A Careless UAS Operator may be aware of but may not adhere to regulations and drone control measures and whose intentions are deemed to be reckless. Reference- Protection against Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Handbook on UAS protection of Critical Infrastructure and Public Space: A five Phase approach for C-UAS stakeholders
  • Classification characterizes a detected object by its type, model, variant, nationality, and other distinguishing features or attributes. Reference- U.S. Army Air and Missile Defense Operations
  • Classification (or classify) is the assignment by the C-UAS technology (either autonomously or by an operator) of a potential target UAS to a high-level category such as UAS type, group, manufacturer and/or specific communication protocol. Reference: DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Clueless UAS Operators are UAS or drone operators who are unaware of and do not adhere to regulations, UAS control measures, or safe UAS operations but whose intentions are deemed non-malicious. Reference- Protection against Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Handbook on UAS protection of Critical Infrastructure and Public Space: A five Phase approach for C-UAS stakeholders
  • A collision drone is a drone designed to collide with an adversary drone. The objective is to disrupt, disable or destroy the adversary drone. Reference- Bard College for the Center of the Drone- Counter-Drone Systems (2nd Edition)
  • UAS Command and Control (C2) is a hardware and software subsystem that permits transmittal of instructions from the GCS to the UAV, which generally leads to changes in the operation of the UAV. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • UAS Command and Control (C2) is a hardware and software subsystem that permits transmittal of instructions from the GCS to the UAV, which generally leads to changes in the operation of the UAV. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Concept of Operations (CONOPS) is the procedure that determines a particular operation's objectives. It is crucial to have a CONOPS in place to determine the goals and objectives of the operations as well as a clear set of guidelines. Reference- Stadia Protection and Mitigation from Drone Incursion and Threats
  • Concept of Operations (CONOPS) is the procedure that determines a particular operation's objectives. It is crucial to have a CONOPS in place to determine the goals and objectives of the operations as well as a clear set of guidelines. Reference- Stadia Protection and Mitigation from Drone Incursion and Threats
  • Controlled airspace is an airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided in accordance with the airspace classification. Reference- Drone Incident Management at Aerodromes on C-UAS Hub or EASA
  • Counter-UAS is the deployment and use of logical, legally authorized technologies, tactics, techniques, and procedures to provide airspace awareness and protection to critical infrastructure, assets, and mass gatherings. Reference- What is Counter-UAS?
  • Counter-UAS is the deployment and use of logical, legally authorized technologies, tactics, techniques, and procedures to provide airspace awareness and protection to critical infrastructure, assets, and mass gatherings. Reference- What is Counter-UAS?
  • A Criminal UAS Operator is a UAS operator who may be aware of, but does not adhere to, regulations and UAS control measures and whose intentions are deemed hostile. Reference- Protection against Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Handbook on UAS protection of Critical Infrastructure and Public Space: A five Phase approach for C-UAS stakeholders
  • Critical Infrastructure (CI) are those assets, systems, and networks that provide functions necessary for our way of life. In the United States, 16 critical infrastructure sectors are part of a complex, interconnected ecosystem and any threat to these sectors could have potentially debilitating national security, economic, and public health or safety consequences. Reference- CISA Critical Infrastructure Sectors
  • Critical Infrastructure (CI) are those assets, systems, and networks that provide functions necessary for our way of life. In the United States, 16 critical infrastructure sectors are part of a complex, interconnected ecosystem and any threat to these sectors could have potentially debilitating national security, economic, and public health or safety consequences. Reference- CISA Critical Infrastructure Sectors
  • d

  • Dazzling is a UAS or drone mitigation technique where a high-intensity light beam or laser is used to "blind" the camera on a drone. Reference- Bard College for the Center of the Drone- Counter-Drone Systems (2nd Edition)
  • A detection is a declaration that a UAS is in the presence of a sensor. Some systems, depending on how thresholds are configured, may report any object in its view as a detection (i.e., birds, commercial planes, etc.), or they may attempt to only alert the operator of objects deemed to be considered UAS, based on system capabilities and configuration. Sensors can include EO/IR cameras, acoustic sensors, radars, and radio frequency (RF) detection sensors. Reference: DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Detect and Avoid (DAA) refers to the capability to see, sense, or detect conflicting traffic or other hazards and take the appropriate action. Reference- Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM)- A Common Framework with Core Principles for Global Harmonization
  • Detect and Avoid (DAA) refers to the capability to see, sense, or detect conflicting traffic or other hazards and take the appropriate action. Reference- Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM)- A Common Framework with Core Principles for Global Harmonization
  • DTI is an abbreviation for the combined phrases of Detect, Track, and Identify. Detect is the ability to sense and classify the presence of a UAS. Track is the ability to determine the UAS position and movement over time. Identify is the ability to determine the size and type (fixed wing, multirotor) of a UAS. Reference- Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • DTI is an abbreviation for the combined phrases of Detect, Track, and Identify. Detect is the ability to sense and classify the presence of a UAS. Track is the ability to determine the UAS position and movement over time. Identify is the ability to determine the size and type (fixed wing, multirotor) of a UAS. Reference- Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • The acoustic detection range is the reported straight-line distance that an acoustic signature should be able to detect a UAV. This parameter may often represent ideal conditions (e.g., a very loud UAV operating in a very quiet environment). Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • The detection range for EO/IR cameras is the reported distance that an EO/IR camera is capable of reporting a detection to the operator of a UAV. It can also be interpreted as the distance at which the operator can reasonably discern a UAV from other unidentified flying objects or the furthest distance that integrated video analytics software can classify an object as a UAV. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Detection range for radars describes the straight line distance at which a radar system can detect a UAV. This specification is often provided in meters, kilometers, or miles. The material, size, and type of UAV can cause this distance to vary even under similar environmental conditions. Manufacturer specifications for detection range are usually under ideal circumstances. They should be verified with real-world testing to ensure they meet agency requirements. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Many factors affect RF sensor detection range. These include terrain, LOS to the target or lack of it, RF interference environment, and RF reflecting surfaces (e.g., buildings creating multipath). Because of these complications, vendors usually specify detection range as a measure of detection distance under ideal conditions. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Directed energy weapons (DEW)—such as lasers—use energy fired at the speed of light. These weapons can produce a force that ranges from deterrent to damaging to destructive. Many countries, including the U.S., are researching their use. Because they use energy instead of bullets or missiles, directed energy weapons could be less expensive per shot and have virtually unlimited firing power. However, the long-term health effects of these weapons are unclear. They also generally have a shorter range than conventional weapons, and weather conditions—such as fog and storms—can make certain directed energy weapons less effective. Reference- Government Accountability Office
  • Directed energy weapons (DEW)—such as lasers—use energy fired at the speed of light. These weapons can produce a force that ranges from deterrent to damaging to destructive. Many countries, including the U.S., are researching their use. Because they use energy instead of bullets or missiles, directed energy weapons could be less expensive per shot and have virtually unlimited firing power. However, the long-term health effects of these weapons are unclear. They also generally have a shorter range than conventional weapons, and weather conditions—such as fog and storms—can make certain directed energy weapons less effective. Reference- Government Accountability Office
  • Most single-site RF direction-finding sensors are capable of determining the approximate direction from which the target signal was received. This is specified in azimuth degrees referenced to true north. The accuracy of this indication is also specified in degrees as a window. For example, ±5 degrees accuracy means that the target source can be anywhere in the specified direction ±5 degrees. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • In the context of the Drone Incident Management Manual for Aerodromes, the sighting of a suspected drone becomes a drone incident, when the verified drone has no clearance and has moved into or is present inside the flight-restricted zone (possibly declared as UAS geographical zone) and is therefore located in one of the “threat zones” at or around the aerodrome for which the drone is not authorized. Reference- Drone Incident Management at Aerodromes on C-UAS Hub or EASA
  • A drone operator is also known as a UAS operator or remote pilot. A drone operator is someone operating or intending to operate one or more drones. Reference- Drone Incident Management at Aerodromes on C-UAS Hub or EASA
  • e

  • EO/IR sensors are digital video cameras that collect environmental information in the visible and infrared light spectrum. This generally incorporates electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 400 nanometers and 1 millimeter. IR sensors can be tuned to look specifically at short-wavelength IR, mid-wavelength IR, long-wavelength IR or a combination of the above. When EO/IR sensors are placed on a rotating gimbal and paired with analysis software, these systems are capable of providing wide-area coverage by acquiring and processing real-time full panoramic images. Furthermore, some of these systems are capable of automatically detecting and tracking UAS targets when paired with the appropriate analysis software. Reference: DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • EO/IR sensors are digital video cameras that collect environmental information in the visible and infrared light spectrum. This generally incorporates electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 400 nanometers and 1 millimeter. IR sensors can be tuned to look specifically at short-wavelength IR, mid-wavelength IR, long-wavelength IR or a combination of the above. When EO/IR sensors are placed on a rotating gimbal and paired with analysis software, these systems are capable of providing wide-area coverage by acquiring and processing real-time full panoramic images. Furthermore, some of these systems are capable of automatically detecting and tracking UAS targets when paired with the appropriate analysis software. Reference: DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Electronic Surveillance Measures is a technology method that uses RF receivers to passively listen and process radio signals of interest within its range. ESM systems are receive-only and do not transmit out. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Electronic Surveillance Measures is a technology method that uses RF receivers to passively listen and process radio signals of interest within its range. ESM systems are receive-only and do not transmit out. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • An Emergency Response Plan (ERP) will detail how and who will be active and in what roles during an incident over an asset, event, or public space. This document should detail the key stakeholders involved, when, and, most particularly, how each engages by clearly stating the roles and responsibilities of each key stakeholder within the process of an active emergency. The stakeholders’ engagement level will depend on the severity of the incident and the consequent outcome. Reference- Stadia Protection and Mitigation from Drone Incursion and Threats
  • An Emergency Response Plan (ERP) will detail how and who will be active and in what roles during an incident over an asset, event, or public space. This document should detail the key stakeholders involved, when, and, most particularly, how each engages by clearly stating the roles and responsibilities of each key stakeholder within the process of an active emergency. The stakeholders’ engagement level will depend on the severity of the incident and the consequent outcome. Reference- Stadia Protection and Mitigation from Drone Incursion and Threats
  • f

  • The Federal Aviation Administration is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation. These include the construction and operation of airports, air traffic management, the certification of personnel and UAV and the protection of U.S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • The Federal Aviation Administration is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation. These include the construction and operation of airports, air traffic management, the certification of personnel and UAV and the protection of U.S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • The Federal Communications Commission is an independent agency of the U.S. government that was created to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • The Federal Communications Commission is an independent agency of the U.S. government that was created to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Field of regard describes the total area captured by the radar sensor after it has completed its mechanical rotations or electronically steered scans.  Radar antennas can be mechanically rotated or electronically steered to scan a wide area of interest (up to 360 degrees). When choosing a radar, it is important to understand how the type of radar employed relates to the area covered, both in the horizontal and vertical plane. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Field of View (FOV) is a term used to describe the limits in both the vertical and horizontal direction that an EO/IR sensor is able to see in a single instance. This parameter is often specified in degrees for horizontal and vertical planes. Some manufacturers may mount EO/IR cameras on a rotating platform and report a horizontal field of view of 360 degrees. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Field of View (FOV) is a term used to describe the limits in both the vertical and horizontal direction that an EO/IR sensor is able to see in a single instance. This parameter is often specified in degrees for horizontal and vertical planes. Some manufacturers may mount EO/IR cameras on a rotating platform and report a horizontal field of view of 360 degrees. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • First-Person-View (FPV) flying is the ability to control a UAV from a “pilot’s eye” perspective through an onboard camera and ground-based receiving and viewing equipment. The viewing equipment is usually a set of video goggles or video screen. Reference- UK Civil Aviation Authority
  • First-Person-View (FPV) flying is the ability to control a UAV from a “pilot’s eye” perspective through an onboard camera and ground-based receiving and viewing equipment. The viewing equipment is usually a set of video goggles or video screen. Reference- UK Civil Aviation Authority
  • A flight path is a single path depicting where an aircraft or drone intends to fly, or has already flown. Reference- Law Insider
  • A flight restriction zone is a zone where drone operations are subject to approval or subject to a prohibition or limitation. Reference- Drone Incident Management at Aerodromes on C-UAS Hub or EASA
  • Radars are active sensors that transmit electromagnetic energy across a specific range of frequencies. This frequency bandwidth parameter is often specified in hertz or by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard Letter Designation (521- 2002 - IEEE Standard Letter Designations for Radar-Frequency Bands , 2003). Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Frequency Difference of Arrival (FDOA) is a technique for estimating the location of a moving radio emitter based on Doppler frequency shift observed from multiple location points. The FDOA emitter target must be in relative motion with respect to each observation point. Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) and FDOA are sometimes used together to improve location accuracy. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Frequency Difference of Arrival (FDOA) is a technique for estimating the location of a moving radio emitter based on Doppler frequency shift observed from multiple location points. The FDOA emitter target must be in relative motion with respect to each observation point. Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) and FDOA are sometimes used together to improve location accuracy. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • g

  • Geofencing is a virtual barrier around predefined areas of airspace. It is manufacturer-specific and, therefore, does not affect UAVs manufactured by someone else. Reference- UK National Protective Security Authority
  • Geolocation is when two or more RF sensors are set up at different locations within the area of interest; it allows for approximate location in two or more dimensions, as opposed to just the direction of the target UAV and/or GCS. There are different ways that a system may display this information, for example, two or more intersecting lines of bearing, a marker on a map, a circle on a map, a heat map with varying color gradients, etc. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) is composed of imagery and geospatial information systems (GIS) and is a key component for building a complete threat risk assessment. Reference- Stadia Protection and Mitigation from Drone Incursion and Threats
  • Geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) is composed of imagery and geospatial information systems (GIS) and is a key component for building a complete threat risk assessment. Reference- Stadia Protection and Mitigation from Drone Incursion and Threats
  • Gigahertz is a unit of measure for a number of cycles per second (frequency) where 1 GHz equals a billion cycles per second. In the context of UAS, GHz is used to describe frequency bands of the radio spectrum used for UAS communications or control. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Gigahertz is a unit of measure for a number of cycles per second (frequency) where 1 GHz equals a billion cycles per second. In the context of UAS, GHz is used to describe frequency bands of the radio spectrum used for UAS communications or control. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a general term to describe a satellite system that is used to pinpoint the geographic location of a user’s receiver anywhere in the world. GNSS can refer to the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS), Galileo, GLONASS, GPS, etc. Reference- UK National Protective Security Authority
  • The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a general term to describe a satellite system that is used to pinpoint the geographic location of a user’s receiver anywhere in the world. GNSS can refer to the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS), Galileo, GLONASS, GPS, etc. Reference- UK National Protective Security Authority
  • Global Positioning System (GPS), originally called Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radio navigation system owned by the U.S. government and operated by the U.S. Air Force. Using signals from multiple satellites positioned worldwide, a receiver and algorithms provide location, velocity, and time synchronization for air, sea, and land objects. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Global Positioning System (GPS), originally called Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radio navigation system owned by the U.S. government and operated by the U.S. Air Force. Using signals from multiple satellites positioned worldwide, a receiver and algorithms provide location, velocity, and time synchronization for air, sea, and land objects. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • GNSS or GPS Jamming is a counter-UAS mitigation technique that disrupts the drone's satellite link, such as GPS or GLONASS, which is used for navigation. Drones that lose their satellite link will usually hover in place, land, or return to home (if it can). Reference- Bard College for the Center of the Drone- Counter-Drone Systems (2nd Edition)
  • A Ground Control Station (GCS) allows the pilot to remotely control and/or monitor the operation of the UAV. Reference- UK National Protective Security Authority
  • A Ground Control Station (GCS) allows the pilot to remotely control and/or monitor the operation of the UAV. Reference- UK National Protective Security Authority
  • A gyroscope is a tool for measuring and maintaining the drone's orientation. This is especially important for drones that are used for aerial photography, as they need to remain stable and level to capture the best images. Gyroscopes are frequently combined with accelerometers, which measure linear acceleration. These two components work together to give the drone the information it needs to determine its position and orientation in three-dimensional space. The use of gyroscope technology aids in the maintenance of a stable hover. The gyroscope detects any wayward drifting or wobbling by the drone when there is no input from the pilot. This data is then sent to a controller instructing the drone’s motors to counteract unwanted movements. The Gyroscope sensor detects angular velocity in three axes. It can detect the angle change rate Pitch, Roll, and Yaw. Gyroscopes also ensure that drones rotate at the exact angle user controls expect. Reference- Sensors Used in Drones
  • h

  • High Power Microwave (HPM) is a counter-UAS or counter-drone mitigation technique that directs pulses of high-intensity microwave energy at the drone, disabling the aircraft's electronic systems. Reference- Bard College for the Center of the Drone- Counter-Drone Systems (2nd Edition)
  • High Power Microwave (HPM) is a counter-UAS or counter-drone mitigation technique that directs pulses of high-intensity microwave energy at the drone, disabling the aircraft's electronic systems. Reference- Bard College for the Center of the Drone- Counter-Drone Systems (2nd Edition)
  • i

  • Identification or Identify is the assignment by the C-UAS technology (either autonomously or by an operator) of a UAS to a more specific name or category, such as physical address of its modem, or the exact make/model of the UAS. Note that the terms, classify and identify, are often used interchangeably, but can have different meanings for different audiences. Reference: DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Image Resolution is a parameter that specifies how much fine detail an image has. Image resolution is often reported as width in pixels by height in pixels. For example, 1280 x 720 means the width of an image contains 1280 pixels, and the height of the image contains 720 pixels. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Industrial, Scientific, and Medical, or ISM refers to a group of radio bands (frequencies) or parts of the radio spectrum that are internationally reserved for RF energy intended for scientific, medical, and industrial requirements. In the United States, this usually includes 433 MHz, 915 MHz, 1.2 GHz, 2.4 GHz, and 5.8 GHz bands. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Industrial, Scientific, and Medical, or ISM refers to a group of radio bands (frequencies) or parts of the radio spectrum that are internationally reserved for RF energy intended for scientific, medical, and industrial requirements. In the United States, this usually includes 433 MHz, 915 MHz, 1.2 GHz, 2.4 GHz, and 5.8 GHz bands. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • An Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is an electronic device that measures acceleration and rotation that can be used to calculate position and velocity. IMUs are the main component of the inertial navigation systems commonly used in aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and other unmanned systems, missiles, and even satellites. An IMU typically consists of: Accelerometers: Measure angular velocity. Gyroscopes: Measure angular rate. Magnetometers (optional): measurement of the magnetic field surrounding the system An IMU with strong vibration resistance and good performance will enhance drone flight performance. Reference- Sensors Used in Drones
  • An Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is an electronic device that measures acceleration and rotation that can be used to calculate position and velocity. IMUs are the main component of the inertial navigation systems commonly used in aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and other unmanned systems, missiles, and even satellites. An IMU typically consists of: Accelerometers: Measure angular velocity. Gyroscopes: Measure angular rate. Magnetometers (optional): measurement of the magnetic field surrounding the system An IMU with strong vibration resistance and good performance will enhance drone flight performance. Reference- Sensors Used in Drones
  • l

  • In terms of counter-UAS or counter-drone technology, a laser is a mitigation tool that destroys vital segments of the drone's airframe using directed energy, causing it to crash to the ground. Reference- Bard College for the Center of the Drone- Counter-Drone Systems (2nd Edition)
  • Line of Bearing (LOB) as it relates to counter-UAS, is a direction in degrees from true north where a potential UAV and/or GCS target is being detected. It is usually displayed in the shape of a wedge of varying width with its origin in the location of the system detecting the target. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Line of Bearing (LOB) as it relates to counter-UAS, is a direction in degrees from true north where a potential UAV and/or GCS target is being detected. It is usually displayed in the shape of a wedge of varying width with its origin in the location of the system detecting the target. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Line of Sight (LOS) is a straight line along which an observer has unobstructed vision. Reference- UK National Protective Security Authority
  • Line of Sight (LOS) is a straight line along which an observer has unobstructed vision. Reference- UK National Protective Security Authority
  • A location is a static estimated report or display of where a GCS or UAV is located at a given moment. The display to the operator of the C-UAS technology can take on many forms, e.g., a heat map display, quadrant alert, or circle to indicate estimated center and location error or line of bearing (LOB). Reference: DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • m

  • A magnetometer measures a magnetic field’s intensity and direction. It gives data on the magnetic field in three X, Y, and Z. This helps the drone determine the magnetic north and change its course accordingly. Apart from direction sensing, magnetic sensors can also detect surrounding magnetism and ferro-metals, such as electricity poles, wires, vehicles, other drones, etc., to help avoid an accident. Reference- Sensors Used in Drones
  • Megahertz is a unit of measure for a number of cycles per second (frequency) where 1 MHz equals a million cycles per second. In the context of UAS, MHz is used to describe frequency bands of the radio spectrum used for UAS communications or control. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Megahertz is a unit of measure for a number of cycles per second (frequency) where 1 MHz equals a million cycles per second. In the context of UAS, MHz is used to describe frequency bands of the radio spectrum used for UAS communications or control. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Mitigate or mitigation is often used interchangeably with negate, interdict, or neutralize. It describes the methods used to remove or reduce the threat posed by a UAS. These methods include technical means, such as RF or GPS jamming, spoofing/hijacking, and kinetic attack; however, these technical methods are likely not legal for any entity other than DHS, DOJ, DOD or DOE to conduct. Mitigation may also include any capability or action associated with finding the sUAS operator and having that person safely land the sUAS, which would likely be permissible if the underlying detection system can be lawfully operated with Federal surveillance laws, as well as FCC and FAA regulatory standards and requirements. Reference: DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Mean Sea Level or MSL is your true altitude or elevation. It is the average height above standard sea level where the atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude. Reference- Drone Pilot Ground School
  • Mean Sea Level or MSL is your true altitude or elevation. It is the average height above standard sea level where the atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude. Reference- Drone Pilot Ground School
  • n

  • The Federal Aviation Administration uses the term "No Drone Zone" to help people identify areas where they cannot operate a drone or unmanned aircraft system (UAS). The operating restrictions for a No Drone Zone are specific to a particular location. Reference- No Drone Zone
  • No Fly Zones (NFZ) are designated areas around areas such as airports, military bases, prisons, stadiums, and other critical infrastructure in which aircraft are unable to operate unless given special authorization by the appropriate authority. Reference- Stadia Protection and Mitigation from Drone Incursion and Threats
  • No Fly Zones (NFZ) are designated areas around areas such as airports, military bases, prisons, stadiums, and other critical infrastructure in which aircraft are unable to operate unless given special authorization by the appropriate authority. Reference- Stadia Protection and Mitigation from Drone Incursion and Threats
  • A non-cooperative drone is a drone/ UAS exhibiting behavior to suggest non-compliance with applicable rules and regulations, including, for instance, flight operations in restricted airspace or carriage of non-permitted payload, or failure to interact with ATC (e.g., responding to instructions, providing identification). Reference- Drone Incident Management at Aerodromes on C-UAS Hub or EASA
  • p

  • Passive Radars are radio-detecting and ranging systems that trace and detect objects by relying on signals transmitted from locations other than the reception antennas. These radar systems are bistatic in nature because they calculate the delay from the time the signal is received from the antenna and the time the signal is reflected off a target location. The target locations are known as non-cooperative sources of illumination in the environment. Reference- https://www.aecl.com/en/defense-aerospace/passive-radar-system/
  • Passive RF sensors rely on antennas to receive and computers to analyze RF signals associated with communications between the GCS and the UAV. Systems that use passive RF sensors as their primary sensor are sometimes referred to as ESM. Passive RF sensors analyze the radio signatures and modulations specific to UAS signals and are capable of identifying certain UAS models and manufacturers as well as locating the signal’s transmission origin–the UAV and/or the GCS. Most C-UAS that rely primarily on passive RF sensors use libraries of known UAS radio signatures and compare detected signals to those in the library in order to classify or identify UAS. Signature libraries may be periodically updated to include additional UAS signatures and update existing signatures. Passive RF sensors can employ several different signal-processing methods to help locate the source of a UAS-associated signal. The more common methods are: • Direction Finding (DF) • Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) • Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) • Frequency Difference of Arrival (FDOA) Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • A payload is an instrument, mechanism, equipment, part, apparatus, appurtenance, or accessory, including communications equipment, that is installed in or attached to the aircraft (or drone) and is not used or intended to be used in operating or controlling an aircraft (or drone) in flight, and is not part of an airframe, engine, or propeller. Reference- Drone Incident Management at Aerodromes on C-UAS Hub or EASA
  • Positive identification (PID) is derived from observation and analysis of target characteristics, including visual recognition, electronic support systems, non-cooperative target recognition techniques, identification friend or foe systems, or other physics-based identification techniques. Reference- U.S. Army Air and Missile Defense Operations
  • Positive identification (PID) is derived from observation and analysis of target characteristics, including visual recognition, electronic support systems, non-cooperative target recognition techniques, identification friend or foe systems, or other physics-based identification techniques. Reference- U.S. Army Air and Missile Defense Operations
  • r

  • An Active Radar operates by transmitting a radio signal of known frequency and power in a focused direction and then detecting the reflected signal that is bounced back from the target. Doppler radars are the most common type of radar used in C-UAS technologies. Doppler radars differentiate the return signal based on a frequency shift from the original transmitted frequency,. which allows the radar to dismiss the detection of stationary objects. Radars can be two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D); 2D radars provide direction and distance to the target, while 3D radars also provide the target’s altitude. Two-dimensional radars typically use a single antenna that rotates to cover the desired field of view. These radars may provide the UAS’s distance from the radar (or the target’s range) and its bearing or azimuth (degrees from true North in the horizontal plane). Three-dimensional radars use phased array stationary antenna panels with multiple internal antennas (array) on a single panel. This type of radar can change the direction of the RF signal it emits by manipulating the phase of the signal emitted by each of the internal antenna elements–much like focusing a lens on a camera. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide  
  • Radio Frequency or RF refers to the oscillatory change in a circuit, waveguide, or transmission line in the range from around 20,000 times per second (20 kHz) to around 300 billion times per second (300 GHz), roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared light. Under certain conditions, RF becomes radio waves of electromagnetic radiation. These waves can propagate at the speed of light, over large distances, and through various materials, air, and even the vacuum of space. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide Radio frequency also refers to the commonly used communications bands that a UAS uses to communicate between the GCS and the UAV. Reference- UK National Protective Security Authority
  • Radio Frequency or RF refers to the oscillatory change in a circuit, waveguide, or transmission line in the range from around 20,000 times per second (20 kHz) to around 300 billion times per second (300 GHz), roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared light. Under certain conditions, RF becomes radio waves of electromagnetic radiation. These waves can propagate at the speed of light, over large distances, and through various materials, air, and even the vacuum of space. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide Radio frequency also refers to the commonly used communications bands that a UAS uses to communicate between the GCS and the UAV. Reference- UK National Protective Security Authority
  • Received Signal Strength Indicator, or RSSI, is a measurement of the power or energy present in a received radio signal, measured in milliwatts or decibels, which are referenced to 1 milliwatt. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Received Signal Strength Indicator, or RSSI, is a measurement of the power or energy present in a received radio signal, measured in milliwatts or decibels, which are referenced to 1 milliwatt. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • A Red Team or Red Teaming Operation consists of a series of teams, each executing specific tasks under the roles of an attack operation, defense/mitigate, command, or observation. Using a Red Teaming Operation to validate the operational procedures of an organization to drone threat incursions over an asset, event, or public space is a valuable tool for all teams and stakeholders to determine capacity building. The Red Team behaves as the physical (in-field) threat actors and attacks the asset(s) of interest. This team can be made up of participants who are external or internal to the organization. It is beneficial to have an external element to the composition of the Red Team to ensure neutrality and an unbiased appraisal of operational procedures to be tested. Reference- Stadia Protection and Mitigation from Drone Incursion and Threats
  • A remote pilot is a person responsible for safely conducting the flight of an unmanned aircraft by operating its flight controls, either manually or, when the unmanned aircraft flies automatically, by monitoring its course and remaining able to intervene and change the course at any time. Reference- Drone Incident Management at Aerodromes on C-UAS Hub or EASA
  • A remotely piloted aircraft is an unmanned aircraft that is flown from a remote pilot station. Reference- Drone Incident Management at Aerodromes on C-UAS Hub or EASA
  • The restricted area is an airspace of defined dimensions above the land areas or territorial waters of a State, within which the aircraft's flight is restricted per certain specified conditions. Reference- Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM)- A Common Framework with Core Principles for Global Harmonization
  • Radio Frequency (RF) Jamming is a UAS mitigation technique where the system attempts to disrupt the RF link between the drone and its operator by generating large volumes of RF interference. Once the RF link (which can include Wi-Fi links) is severed, a drone will usually either descend to the ground or initiate a ‘return-to-home' maneuver. However, this technique has no effect against drones that operate without an active RF link. Many signal jammers also have a limited effective range of a few hundred meters, meaning that the system must be very close to the intruding UAS to mitigate its threats successfully, and they are not effective without a direct line of sight to the UAS. Jammers capable of operating at long ranges and beyond line of sight must be significantly more powerful, but more powerful jammers also pose a higher risk of interference to legitimate communications. Reference- Protection against Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Handbook on UAS protection of Critical Infrastructure and Public Space: A five Phase approach for C-UAS stakeholders
  • Risk management is an element of the UAS threat process that applies the findings from the threat integration and the threat analysis to evaluate the CI site’s specific risks and corresponding mitigation measures in depth. Reference- Protection against Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Handbook on UAS protection of Critical Infrastructure and Public Space: A five Phase approach for C-UAS stakeholders
  • In military terms, rules of engagement (ROE) are directives issued by a competent military authority that delineate the circumstances and limitations under which a military force will initiate and/or continue combat engagement with other forces encountered. Reference- U.S. Army Air and Missile Defense Operations
  • In military terms, rules of engagement (ROE) are directives issued by a competent military authority that delineate the circumstances and limitations under which a military force will initiate and/or continue combat engagement with other forces encountered. Reference- U.S. Army Air and Missile Defense Operations
  • s

  • A Safety Management System (SMS) is a systematic approach to managing aviation safety, including the necessary organizational structures, accountabilities, policies, and procedures, and includes any management system that, independently or integrated with other management systems of the organization, addresses the management of safety. Reference- Drone Incident Management at Aerodromes on C-UAS Hub or EASA
  • A Safety Management System (SMS) is a systematic approach to managing aviation safety, including the necessary organizational structures, accountabilities, policies, and procedures, and includes any management system that, independently or integrated with other management systems of the organization, addresses the management of safety. Reference- Drone Incident Management at Aerodromes on C-UAS Hub or EASA
  • Safety Risk Management (SRM) encompasses assessing and mitigating safety risks. Safety risk management aims to assess the risks associated with identified hazards and develop and implement effective and appropriate mitigations. Therefore, Safety risk management is a key component of the safety management process at the State and product/service provider levels. Reference- Drone Incident Management at Aerodromes on C-UAS Hub or EASA
  • Safety Risk Management (SRM) encompasses assessing and mitigating safety risks. Safety risk management aims to assess the risks associated with identified hazards and develop and implement effective and appropriate mitigations. Therefore, Safety risk management is a key component of the safety management process at the State and product/service provider levels. Reference- Drone Incident Management at Aerodromes on C-UAS Hub or EASA
  • Scan rate for EO/IR cameras describes how fast a FOV can be scanned. This parameter is often reported in either degrees per second or hertz if the system is designed to complete full 360-degree rotations. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Scan rate refers to how fast a radar can scan an entire area of interest (usually 360 degrees), specified in hertz (Hz). For example, 2 Hz means it scans the area twice every second. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Segregated airspace is the airspace of specified dimensions allocated for exclusive use to a specific user(s). Reference- Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM)- A Common Framework with Core Principles for Global Harmonization
  • Short-range air defense (SHORAD) provides air defense against low-altitude airborne threats. Reference- U.S. Army Air and Missile Defense Threats
  • Short-range air defense (SHORAD) provides air defense against low-altitude airborne threats. Reference- U.S. Army Air and Missile Defense Threats
  • Small Uncrewed Aircraft Systems, or sUAS, are systems with UAVs weighing less than 55 pounds at take-off. These UAVs are propeller-driven, powered by one or multiple electric motors, and use an on-board rechargeable battery. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Small Uncrewed Aircraft Systems, or sUAS, are systems with UAVs weighing less than 55 pounds at take-off. These UAVs are propeller-driven, powered by one or multiple electric motors, and use an on-board rechargeable battery. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Spoofing is a UAS mitigation technique where the system attempts to take control of or misdirect the targeted UAS by feeding it a spurious communication or navigation link. Spoofing systems, however, are technically very difficult to build and implement and may not be universally effective against all UAS. Unmanned aircraft that have been built with protected communication links, for example, could be resistant to spoofing attacks. Reference- Protection against Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Handbook on UAS protection of Critical Infrastructure and Public Space: A five Phase approach for C-UAS stakeholders
  • t

  • A threat assessment is the estimation of the probability for an attack to be enacted against a target during a specific time frame, which will help to determine the threat level that a UAS may pose and will help decision-makers select the appropriate and most effective countermeasure. Reference- Drone Incident Management at Aerodromes on C-UAS Hub or EASA
  • Threat identification involves identifying potential means and methods of attack and includes the assessment of current (if any) protective measures, the identification of vulnerabilities in the examined asset against the considered UAS attack tactic and the production of attack scenarios. Reference- Protection against Unmanned Aircraft Systems
  • Red, Amber, and Green threat levels are a set of 'traffic light' security protocols on engaging a UAS or drone threat and when it is deemed a threat in the context of a stadium or other mass gathering. Green- No impact- monitor. An issue that occurs outside routine activity and does not disrupt operations. Amber- Enhanced state. An issue that causes or could cause disruption. Neutralization by counter-UAS technology or other methods is probable. Red- Detect and respond—a significant issue or incident causing an emergency or major disruption. Neutralization by counter-UAS technology or other methods has failed, and evacuations or other public safety measures are to be activated. Reference- Stadia Protection and Mitigation from Drone Incursion and Threats
  • Time Difference of Arrival, or TDOA, is a method to accurately locate a UAV, GCS, or a radio wave emitter by measuring the TDOA of a signal from the emitter at three or more time-synchronized receiver sites or, conversely, the signals from three or more time-synchronized emitters at one receiver location (navigation application, e.g., GPS). Reference- Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Time Difference of Arrival, or TDOA, is a method to accurately locate a UAV, GCS, or a radio wave emitter by measuring the TDOA of a signal from the emitter at three or more time-synchronized receiver sites or, conversely, the signals from three or more time-synchronized emitters at one receiver location (navigation application, e.g., GPS). Reference- Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • A track or tracking is a compilation of location reports for a drone over a period of time. Tracks can be displayed for GCS and/or UAVs. Generally, it is displayed as a line or a sequence of dots. Reference: DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Transmit Power is the radio energy transmitted by a radar antenna, or other systems, such as drone mitigation systems or UAV ground control stations, every second. It is measured in watts (W) and can be as high as several hundred watts. Safe standoff distance is highly dependent on specific radar transmission parameters, such as transmit power, and is usually specified by the manufacturer. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • u

  • An Uncrewed Aerial Vehicle, or UAV, also referred to as a drone, is an aircraft without an onboard human pilot that can fly either by remote control from a human operator or autonomously using onboard sensors. UAVs are a component of a UAS, which also includes a GCS and a system of communications—also called an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • An Uncrewed Aerial Vehicle, or UAV, also referred to as a drone, is an aircraft without an onboard human pilot that can fly either by remote control from a human operator or autonomously using onboard sensors. UAVs are a component of a UAS, which also includes a GCS and a system of communications—also called an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • In its broadest sense, the International Civil Aviation Authority defines Uncrewed Aircraft System Traffic Management (UTM) as ‘A specific aspect of air traffic management which manages UAS operations safely, economically and efficiently through the provision of facilities and a seamless set of services in collaboration with all parties and involving airborne and ground-based functions.’ Consequently, a UTM system ‘provides UTM through the collaborative integration of humans, information, technology, facilities, and services, supported by air, ground or space-based communications, navigation, and surveillance.’ Reference- Protection against Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Handbook on UAS protection of Critical Infrastructure and Public Space: A five Phase approach for C-UAS stakeholders
  • In its broadest sense, the International Civil Aviation Authority defines Uncrewed Aircraft System Traffic Management (UTM) as ‘A specific aspect of air traffic management which manages UAS operations safely, economically and efficiently through the provision of facilities and a seamless set of services in collaboration with all parties and involving airborne and ground-based functions.’ Consequently, a UTM system ‘provides UTM through the collaborative integration of humans, information, technology, facilities, and services, supported by air, ground or space-based communications, navigation, and surveillance.’ Reference- Protection against Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Handbook on UAS protection of Critical Infrastructure and Public Space: A five Phase approach for C-UAS stakeholders
  • Uncrewed Aircraft Systems, or UAS, refers to the systems and components that allow for the remote control or autonomous flights of UAVs. UAS components include a UAV or drone, a GCS, and a system of communications between the two. They are also called Unmanned Aircraft Systems. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Uncrewed Aircraft Systems, or UAS, refers to the systems and components that allow for the remote control or autonomous flights of UAVs. UAS components include a UAV or drone, a GCS, and a system of communications between the two. They are also called Unmanned Aircraft Systems. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • v

  • Vertical Take-Off and Landing, or VTOL, refers to a UAV that can hover, take off, and land vertically. This classification can include types of UAVs such as fixed-wing, helicopters, and other UAVs with powered rotors. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Vertical Take-Off and Landing, or VTOL, refers to a UAV that can hover, take off, and land vertically. This classification can include types of UAVs such as fixed-wing, helicopters, and other UAVs with powered rotors. Reference- DHS Counter-UAS Technology Guide
  • Visual Line of Sight or VLOS is when the pilot is able to see either the asset or the UAV from the launch site. Reference- UK National Protective Security Authority
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