The Use of Force in the 22nd Century: Man Versus Machine is a Naval Post Graduate School thesis by Christopher M. Gojcz.

This study aimed to investigate the applicability of current use-of-force models in scenarios where autonomous vehicles are involved, without any human actors present. The research involved a comprehensive review of use-of-force policies and a qualitative analysis of the current use-of-force guidelines provided by law enforcement organizations. Additionally, the study examined documented incidents of interactions between law enforcement and autonomous vehicles and incorporated feedback from a focus group to gain insights from law enforcement on the use of force in situations involving autonomous vehicles.

Publication Date- December 2022

The Use of Force in the 22nd Century: Man Versus Machine contains the following major sections:

  • Introduction
  • The Challenges of Automation
  • The Use of Force
  • Focusing on the Problem
  • Analysis and Conclusions

Approved for public release.  Distribution is unlimited.

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Author- Christopher M. Gojcz, United States Secret Service

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